Hypothalamic Pituitary Thyroid Axis Graphic

Hypothalamic — Pituitary — Thyroid Axis

The thyroid gland is influenced by hormones produced by two other organs: The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) The hypothalamus, a small part of the brain above the pituitary, produces thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). Low levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are detected by the hypothalamus and the pituitary. TRH …

Graves Ophthalmopathy Exophthalmos

Grave’s Disease

Grave’s disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to over activity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). An autoimmune disorder is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. Diffuse toxic goiter: Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (over activity of the thyroid gland), with generalized diffuse over activity (“toxicity”) of the entire thyroid …

Thyroid Nodule

Thyroid nodule A thyroid nodule is a growth (lump) in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located in the neck. Thyroid nodules are very common and occur in up to 15 to 30% of the US population.  Like most thyroid diseases, they are more common among women than men. The chance of having a thyroid nodule increases with age …

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). With early detection through the proper instruments in a medical clinic, PTH activity can be reduced. Most people have four pea-sized glands, called parathyroid glands, on the thyroid gland in the neck. Though their names are similar, the thyroid and parathyroid glands …

Goiter

A simple goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is usually not cancer. There are different kinds of goiters: A simple goiter can occur without a known reason. It can occur when the thyroid gland is not able to make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body’s needs. This can be due to a lack of iodine in …