Hypothalamic Pituitary Thyroid Axis Graphic

Hypothalamic — Pituitary — Thyroid Axis

The thyroid gland is influenced by hormones produced by two other organs: The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) The hypothalamus, a small part of the brain above the pituitary, produces thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). Low levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are detected by the hypothalamus and the pituitary. TRH …

Graves Ophthalmopathy Exophthalmos

Grave’s Disease

Grave’s disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to over activity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). An autoimmune disorder is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. Diffuse toxic goiter: Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (over activity of the thyroid gland), with generalized diffuse over activity (“toxicity”) of the entire thyroid …

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Thyroid Nodule

Thyroid nodule A thyroid nodule is a growth (lump) in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located in the neck. Thyroid nodules are very common and occur in up to 15 to 30% of the US population.  Like most thyroid diseases, they are more common among women than men. The chance of having a thyroid nodule increases with age …

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Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). Most people have four pea-sized glands, called parathyroid glands, on the thyroid gland in the neck. Though their names are similar, the thyroid and parathyroid glands are completely different. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps your body keep the …

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Goiter

A simple goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is usually not cancer. There are different kinds of goiters: A simple goiter can occur without a known reason. It can occur when the thyroid gland is not able to make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body’s needs. This can be due to a lack of iodine in …